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The Vision of 6G

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Update time : 2021-09-02 10:03:09
In the future, 6G will be based on the three major application scenarios proposed by 5G (eMBB、mMTC、URLLc), and continuously improve performance and optimize user experience through technological innovation, and further extend the boundary of services from the physical world to the virtual world. On the basis of the perfect collaboration of man-machine-things-environment, explore new application scenarios, new business forms and new business models.



These scenarios have high requirements for indicators such as delay, speed, reliability, positioning accuracy, and mobility.

(1)Peak rate

For example, in the holographic communication of an enhanced wearable, a hologram size of 7~8GB, is converted to 56~64bit. If the video is of the same clarity, considering the 30fs, conversion rate requirement of 1.68~192Tbis, reaches the level of Tbis.
In the sensory Internet scene, due to the collaborative transmission of multiple senses, the amount of data will increase with the number of senses transmitted, so the maximum throughput of the communication network also needs to be multiple improved to ensure the reliable transmission of massive information. In addition, the data types of the Internet are more complex, such as a simple handshake operation, the required data include contact point, curvature, strength, etc., so the network has higher requirements for rate.
In the twin industrial scenario, companies have now developed industrial-oriented digital twin network components with a transmission rate of 1 Gbit/s. In the future, twin agriculture will collect data from the whole industrial chain such as agricultural planning, production, circulation, consumption and so on, and the amount of data of prenatal planning, fine management and efficient postpartum circulation will be greatly improved, and the peak rate will be greatly improved to reach Tbit/s level.

(2)User Experience Rate

In the future development of the field of intelligent interaction, voice interaction will advance from mechanical single-round dialogue to more smooth multi-round dialogue, while computer vision interaction will focus on finer-dimensional image features and expand more interactive spaces and scenes. Intelligent interaction will not only be limited to between people and machines, but between people will be able to share learning capabilities and copy life skills, and between machines based on adaptive knowledge map updates and multi-modal fusion behavior recognition Intelligent interactive technology will also be widely used. In addition, brain-computer interface technology based on cranial nerve computing and cognitive function simulation will also be fully developed. It is foreseeable that the user experience rate of intelligent interaction for 2030+ will be greater than 10 Gbit/s.

(3)Time Delay

In order to support the real-time monitoring and digital simulation of digital twins, twin medical has certain requirements for time delay. In terms of real-time monitoring and enhancing the support of wearable devices, the delay only needs to reach the order of 10ms. For the digital twin business, because it is a simulation prediction in a virtual scene, it is necessary to quickly simulate and predict what will happen next after a certain change in the system, which poses a challenge to the delay. Therefore, the delay of medical treatment can be reduced. The index is set at about 0.1ms.

In the intelligent interaction scene for 2030+, the agent will produce active intelligent interaction behavior, and at the same time can realize emotional judgment and feedback intelligence. Therefore, the amount of data processing for intelligent interaction realized by agents will increase significantly. In order to realize the real-time interaction and feedback between agents and humans, the transmission delay must be less than 1ms. In twin agriculture, relying on the development of the Synaesthetic Internet, users can independently select agricultural products based on fragrance and taste. In order to meet the sensory transmission requirements of touch, smell, taste, etc., the delay should be less than or equal to 1ms.

In super-energy traffic scenarios, the time delay requirement is estimated according to the safe braking distance of the vehicle. In the future, the speed of driverless vehicles is usually tens to 100 kmh. If the two vehicles drive in opposite directions, the relative speed may reach 100~300km/h, that is, 28~83ms. The relative driving distance within 1s is equivalent to 11-33 vehicles. The length of a small car body and the length of 10 to 31 medium-sized cars. In some scenarios, such as when a large amount of high-definition video data needs to be transmitted (typical scenarios of car networking or autonomous driving), the burden of transmitting information between the terminal and the server increases significantly. At this time, the transmission delay may increase to several seconds, and the corresponding driving The distance may reach hundreds of meters, causing serious safety hazards. Therefore, the time delay must be further optimized to be less than 1ms to reduce the possibility of casualties.

(4)Reliability

In the super-energy transportation application scenario, taking smart driving as an example, in addition to realizing normal safe driving, it will also provide mobile office, home interconnection, and entertainment life functions. Therefore, it is necessary to transmit a large amount of high-definition video, high-fidelity audio and other data information in real time. This means that the next-generation mobile communication network must support higher data transmission reliability in order to provide users with the ultimate driving service experience.
In the existing intelligent interactive applications, the main factors affecting reliability are the accuracy of speech recognition and image recognition in the interactive process. Take voice interaction as an example. Although voice recognition technology has made great progress, it is difficult for existing voice recognition systems to exclude the influence of various acoustic environmental factors. The human language in daily life is random and uncertain, which causes great recognition difficulties for the speech recognition system. Intelligent interactive application scenarios for 2030+ will integrate multiple information such as voice, face, gestures, and physiological signals. The ability to understand human thinking and context will also be more complete, so reliability indicators need to be further improved.

(5)Mobility

Mobility is the most basic performance index of a mobile communication system. For the next generation of mobile communication networks, it is necessary to consider ultra-high-speed trains and vacuum tunnel trains with speeds exceeding 100km per hour. Research institutions at home and abroad have carried out related work. At the same time, it is necessary to consider the access of civil aviation aircraft passengers in the future. The flying speed of civil aviation aircraft is basically 800100mh. Therefore, the mobile performance access of future vehicles is recommended to be measured by users moving at speeds higher than 1000mh.

(6) Connection number density

Twin Agriculture needs to rely on various sensor nodes deployed in the agricultural production site (environmental temperature and humidity sensors, soil moisture sensors, carbon dioxide concentration sensors, etc.) to achieve intelligent perception, intelligent early warning, intelligent decision-making and intelligent analysis of the agricultural production environment. The number of Internet of Things devices in 2020 will reach 10 billion, and the number of Internet of Things devices in 2030 will be about 125 billion. From this, it can be calculated that the number of Internet of Things devices in the production industry in 2030 will increase by at least 10 times compared to 2020. In the 6G era, the connection density will be 10-100 times higher than that of 5G, and the statistical method will develop from two-dimensional to three-dimensional, reaching 107~10 devices/m3.

Due to the wide geographical distribution of agriculture, twin agricultural applications have the characteristics of diverse crop types and terrains, and many interference factors. In order to build a twin agricultural platform with strong environmental adaptability, it is necessary to solve the problems of wireless sensor network node energy consumption and node communication efficiency. Compared with 5G, future network energy efficiency will increase 10-100 times.

(7)Energy Efficiency

Due to the wide geographical distribution of agriculture, twin agricultural applications have the characteristics of diverse crop types and terrains, and many interference factors. In order to build a twin agricultural platform with strong environmental adaptability, it is necessary to solve the problems of wireless sensor network node energy consumption and node communication efficiency. Compared with 5G, future network energy efficiency will increase 10-100 times.

(8)Positioning Accuracy

Refined operations such as farm machinery farming and livestock positioning in twin agriculture require centimeter-level precision spatial positioning. The existing positioning technology is mainly based on real-time dynamic differential technology, which can achieve centimeter-level positioning in the open and unobstructed outdoors.
The future comprehensive three-dimensional transportation network covers railways, highways, water transportation, civil aviation, pipelines, etc., involving tunnels, underground, submarine and other scenarios. It is necessary to comprehensively consider multiple technologies such as cellular network positioning, inertial navigation, and radar to ensure that the transportation terminal will be better in the future. High-precision positioning is always achieved in complex application scenarios.
(9)Security

Synesthetic Internet is a form of communication in which multiple senses cooperate with each other. The security of communication must be more powerfully guaranteed, so as to ensure the privacy of users and prevent the occurrence of infringement incidents. Traditional encryption methods can prevent eavesdropping. However, the traditional security mechanism is implemented on a higher protocol layer, which will cause significant time delay. In order for the Synesthetic Internet to provide securely transmitted data with extremely low end-to-end delay, it is necessary to embed a communication security mechanism for eavesdroppers and attackers in the physical transmission. Choosing an appropriate encoding technique will ensure that only legitimate recipients can receive valid information.

  In general, the new application scenarios for 2030+ have the characteristics of ultra-high speed, ultra-low latency, ultra-high reliability, ultra-high mobility, and ultra-large connection density. 
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